Free resources

I do a lot of presentations, both inside and outside of the university. When presenting, I often use photographs that I have taken or illustrations that I create when writing papers as part of preparing for a lecture. I quite often get asked if people can use my material. I always reply "Yes, of course, you can". This site is a place to collect and share the material I myself use the most.

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Want to use one of the photos, illustrations or videos on this site in your teaching? Please go ahead. Or in a presentation or video? Please do, and I would love to hear about how you use them and to get your feedback!

I appreciate attribution in some form, i.e., that you tell where you got the material from ("Per-Olof Hedvall"), but it is not mandatory.

📸 Photos

I have taken all photos on this site. Please feel free to use them as you like.

🖍 Illustrations

The illustrations are available on this page, together with some thoughts behind them and how I use them in my teaching and lectures.

N.B. The descriptions of the different illustrations below are very brief. Please refer to the papers I list for in-depth reasoning and further lines of thought.

All vs. most vs. some vs. none – have we built our society on a too narrow base?

Below is an illustration that I frequently use in my presentations. It is based on a bell curve over the population, where most individuals are in the centre while some individuals are on the edges, excluded/marginalised. This way of thinking is the foundation for how accessibility and usability are conceptualised in standards and guidelines.

I use this illustration to highlight for instance that while most people are at the centre, this is not where we can learn the most about what flexibility is needed to acknowledge and support human diversity. At the outer edges, among "extreme users", "edge cases", "fringe cases" etc., that's where the people that can provide knowledge regarding what they struggle with, and what support them can be found. That's also where the current non-users are. In the documentary "Objectified", Dan Formosa, put it like this: "If we understand what the extremes are, the middle will take care of itself." More information about the documentary is on Gary Hustwit's website. You can watch it for free over at DocumentaryHeaven.

Illustration of a bell curve with delimitations. Most people are in the centre, while some persons are on the outside, i.e. excluded/marginalised.
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Hedvall, P.-O., Ståhl, A., & Iwarsson, S. (2022). Tillgänglighet, användbarhet och universell utformning. In V. Denvall & S. Iwarsson (Red.), Participation (p. 151–181).

Hedvall, P.-O., Price, M., Keller, J., & Ericsson, S. (2022). Towards 3rd Generation Universal Design: Exploring Nonclusive Design. UD2022, Italy.

Collingridge dilemma

I sometimes relate to "Collingridge's dilemma" in my talks. He said:

"When change is easy, the need for it cannot be foreseen; When the need for change is apparent, change has become expensive, difficult, and time-consuming." – David Collingridge

Collingridge dilemma. Two intersecting curves. When the control (peak to the left) over the decisions/technology is at its highest, the knowledge (peak to the right) regarding their effects is at its lowest.
Collingridge dilemma. When the control over the decisions/technology is at its highest, the knowledge regarding their effects is at its lowest.

For someone working with access and use, like me, it is easy to recognise a similar dilemma: accessibility, usability and universal design need to be part of the design process from the very start when the least is known about the end results, and the potential for access and use is at its highest.

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Collingridge, D. (1980). The social control of technology. Frances Pinter ; St. Martin’s Press.

Genus, A., & Stirling, A. (2018). Collingridge and the dilemma of control: Towards responsible and accountable innovation. Research Policy, 47(1), 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.09.012

Hedvall, P.-O., Ståhl, A., & Iwarsson, S. (2022). Tillgänglighet, användbarhet och universell utformning. In V. Denvall & S. Iwarsson (Red.), Participation (p. 151–181). 

Accessibility, Usability, and Universal Design

The terms Accessibility, Usability and Universal Design all play essential roles in what a person can do and contribute to. In the book "Participation", my colleagues and I elaborate on how the terms are conceptualised and how they relate to each other.

Three circles put on top of each other in a hierarchy. At the innermost position we find "Accessibilty". Outside of that "Usability", and the outermost circle is "Universal Design".
Accessibility, Usability, and Universal Design – three related concepts.

In my teaching, I use the model to describe how the three concepts provide different foci that all are essential as conditions for what a person can do and contribute to, i.e., for participation.

The three concepts: Accessibility, Usability, and Universal Design, their respective foci, that together make up the conditions for participation.
The three concepts: Accessibility, Usability, and Universal Design, and the way they highlight different aspects of what makes up the conditions for participation. (See reference below)
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Hedvall, P.-O., Ståhl, A., & Iwarsson, S. (2022). Tillgänglighet, användbarhet och universell utformning. In V. Denvall & S. Iwarsson (Red.), Participation (p. 151–181).

What do categorisations create?

One of our main research themes during the last years is "categorisation". In our research, we explore what categorisations create and what characterises categorisations that do not lead to inequality and stigma. In the pictogram below, I have highlighted the separation into "woman" and "man" found on toilet doors.

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Ericsson, S., Wojahn, D., Sandström, I., & Hedvall, P.-O. (2020). Language that Supports Sustainable Development: How to Write about People in Universal Design Policy. Sustainability, 12(22), 9561. https://doi.org/10/ghrshm